Species across the genus contain concentric rings of vascular bundles, and fix carbon efficiently with a C4 photosyntheticpathway. Amaranth is a herbaceous plant or shrub that is either annual or perennial across the genus. The production area in Europe is quite low, only about 1000 ha. Amaranth is a red azo-dye with the chemical name trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo)naphthalene-3,6-disulfonate manufactured by coupling 4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid with 3-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (Figure 2.1d). Scientific Name; AMHYC: Amaranthus hybridus L. ssp. Emmambux, in Technology of Functional Cereal Products, 2008. Aperitif wines and spirit drinks including products with less than 15% alcohol by volume may contain the colour at a level of 30 mg/l, and the only food for which the colour is authorised is fish roe at a maximum level of 30 mg/kg (European Commission, 2011). Amaranthus belongs to the Caryophyllales order, which includes also quinoa, spinach and beetroot. Amaranth possesses characteristics of fast growth rate, good tolerance to stress (drought, salinity, alkalinity, and acidic poor soil conditions), and high potential for biomass and grain yield. Benth. As the use of Amaranth for foods is rather limited, it is rather unlikely that exposure to the colour resulting from foods exceeds this ADI, unless excessive consumption of Americano, the main contributor to the exposure to Amaranth, occurs. The outer layers are rich in fat and protein. Often known as pigweeds, these competitive species are tolerant to a variety of growing conditions and readily reseed themselves. Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page. Amaranthus viridis is a cosmopolitan species in the botanical family Amaranthaceae and is commonly known as slender amaranth or green amaranth. Elke K. Arendt, Emanuele Zannini, in Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries, 2013. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. There is currently a resurgence in the popularity of amaranth 500 years after it was eaten as staple food by ancient Mesoamericans, and it is available as part of a wide range of commercial foodstuffs in many parts of the world. However, generally the water requirements for growing amaranth are much lower compared to wheat (less than 50%), and maize (less than 40%–50%), (Alemayehu et al., 2015). Scientific name: Amaranthus spp Family: Amaranthaceae Common name: Pigweed (English), Hanekam (Afrikaans), Thepe (Sesotho), Imbuya (isiZulu), Vowa (Tshivenda) Origin and distribution. 0.30g (435s) R 35.00. In Mexico, it is called huautli ( Spanish pronunciation: [ˈwawtli] and alegría ( [aleˈɣɾi.a] and in English it has several common names, including blood amaranth, red amaranth, purple amaranth, prince's feather, and Mexican grain amaranth. Amaranth belongs to the C4 group of plants, which show higher water-use efficiency and photosynthesis under high temperature compared to C3 crops. The plants utilize a photosynthetic pathway known as C4 carbon fixation, which largely prevents photorespiration and thus increases drought tolerance. Amaranth plants typically are annuals or short-lived perennials. Corrections? cruentus (L.) Thell. The species have usually a haploid chromosome number of n = 16 (A. hypochondriacus L., A. cruentus L., A. caudatus L, Amaranthus quitensis L., Amaranthus edulis L., Amaranthus powellii L., and Amaranthus retroflexus L.) or n = 17 (Amaranthus tricolor L. and Amaranthus spinosus L.). There is much greater cultivation in Russia, amounting to about 100,000 ha (Moudry et al., 1999). Amaranth consumption positively affects plasma lipid profile and amaranth oil is a promising source of squalene. They can grow upright or prostrate. 0. Native to Central America and South America, it is also cultivated in the countries having warm climate. The content of various mineral elements and vitamins in amaranth grains from major species was analyzed. It was an ancient crop that was under cultivation 5000–7000 years ago as a staple food of the ancient Aztecs. Globe Amaranth is an excellent low maintenance, “sustainable” annual plant. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Several amaranth species are useful as food crops and are grown both for their leaves and for their edible seeds, which are a nutritious pseudocereal (nongrass seeds used like cereal grains). For amaranth seeds a wide range of harvest yields has been reported. The tetraploid species as Amaranthus dubius L. have 4n = 64 chromosomes. Normally it does not require much maintenance and it blooms continuously throughout the summer up to … Amaranth is a resistant, fast-growing crop capable of adapting to unfavorable climatic conditions and poor soil. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The main amaranth-producing countries are the tropical regions of South America, but also of Africa (especially for leaves of the amaranth plant), Central, and Southeast Asia (especially India), and to a minor extent also the warmer regions of North America. In the United States, the use of Amaranth was discontinued after 1976 as a result of concerns regarding its safety-in-use. Omissions? International Common Names. (1810) Euxolus viridis (L.) Moq. U.S. Weed Information. Amaranth’s protein content is highly hydrolysable and is rich in lysine, methionine, and cysteine (Orona-Tamayo and Paredes-López, 2017). Stefano D’Amico, Regine Schoenlechner, in Gluten-Free Ancient Grains, 2017. The seed was from grain amaranths, and they expected to foster a … The levels of P, Ca, K, and Mg are usually higher than those found in common cereal grains. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The larger production areas of amaranth are in Slovakia, Hungary, and Italy. (2015) revealed yields from 50 to 7200 kg/ha. ... Mat amaranth (Amaranthus graecizans) An annual species, found in Auckland City and Dargaville, and around the East Cape, but most common in Central Otago. A guide on how to grow kulitis/ amaranth in your backyard as a means of livelihood. Since the 1970s, there has been a renaissance in the production and processing of amaranth because of its potential as a highly nutritional food grain (Berghofer and Schoenlechner, 2002). Amaranthus palmeri. In Maharashtra, it is called shravani maath ("श्रावणी माठ") or … It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. Amaranth starch is characterized by the small size of granules, low amylose content, high water-binding capacity, good freeze–thaw stability, resistance to mechanical shear, and excellent gelling and thickening properties (Wilhelm, Aberle, Burchard, & Landers, 2002; Zhao & Whistler, 1994). A comparison of the average chemical compositions between amaranth (A. hypochondriacus) and main cereals (maize, rice, and wheat) is shown in Table 1. The stems often are reddish in colour and sometimes are armed with spines; they bear simple, alternately arranged leaves and often feature a pinkish taproot. Figure 6.2. Amaranth's use as an herbal medicine is derived mainly from its high content of vitamins and minerals. Family Name: Amaranthaceae. Amaranth proteins, concentrates, or isolates are characterized by excellent solubility, as well as foaming, emulsifying, and stabilizing properties (Bejosano & Corke, 1998; Fidantsi & Doxastakis, 2001) and thus have a high potential for functional foods, in particular where gel formation is desired. Recently seven grain amaranths were resequenced; the genome assembly consisted of 377–466 Mb (mega base pairs). Amaranth is a group of more than 60 different species of grains that have been cultivated for about 8,000 years. Amaranth is a species of the Amaranthaceae family, found mostly in subtropical and tropical regions (Berghofer and Schoenlechner, 2002). Comparison of proximate composition between amaranth grains and some cerealsa, Table 2. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Several species of amaranth have been used for food by Native Americans and pre-Columbian civilizations since prehistoric times. Amaranth Scientific Name: Amaranthus spp. Study showed albino mice pretreated with leaf extract provided protection against gamma irradiation in mice. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amaranth proteins has reportedly produced peptides with antithrombotic, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant effects (Fillería and Tironi, 2017; Moronta et al., 2016; Sabbione et al., 2015). Taylor, M.N. Amaranth has been attracting worldwide attention as a high-potential new crop with multiple uses; a spate of recent scientific publications on novel applications of amaranth grain and its fractions suggest that greater demand may be on the horizon. It is of nutritional interest to find that amaranth grains contain relatively higher level of iron than that in cereal grains. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. A number of species, including love-lies-bleeding (Amaranthus caudatus), prince’s feather (A. hypochondriacus), and Joseph’s coat (A. tricolor), are common garden ornamentals. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth); habit, showing white-flushed leaves Kahului Airport, Maui, Hawaii, USA. The nutty-tasting seeds can be popped, cooked into a porridge, or ground into a flour for use in baked goods (typically mixed with grain flours). The leaves are relatively broad and the blossom strands can reach a length of up to 90 cm. ©S.D. Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth); leaves alternate, broadly lanceolate to ovate, discolorous, up to 7 cm long, 4 cm wide, margins entire, base tapering to a slender petiole up to 7 cm long, with a pair of straight spines up to 1 cm long at base. The next, higher level of taxonomy is the foxtail family, the Amaranthaceae (Berghofer and Schoenlechner 2002). Amaranth is a pseudocereal crop and produces cereal-like grains that contain high levels of nutritionally favorable protein, unusual quality of starch, and high-quality oil (including squalene). Identification Notes. The results of these studies lead to the establishment of an ADI of 0.15 mg/kg bw. In addition to its nutritional advantages, amaranth and isolated fractions or components thereof offer unique properties and technological functionality in food applications that have not been exploited to a large extent. The yield depends on many factors, for example, low seed yields of 450–700 kg/ha on dry land were significantly increased to 900–2000 kg/ha by irrigation. Amaranth. Biscuits containing Amaranth showed a loss of 39–45% promoted by the use of baking soda, sucrose, and dextrose. The genus Amaranthus contains about 70 species. For amaranth processing, the absence of gluten should be considered, therefore, it has no dough-forming properties. slender amaranth; Other Scientific Names. Flowers are predominantly purple, red, pink, orange, or green. Chromosome number varies with species in amaranth. Up to 20% amaranth addition does not really ask for intensive adaptation of preparation processes. The major metabolite found in the plasma and urine is naphthionic acid. Gloria A. Martínez-MedinaArely Prado BarragánHéctor A. RuizAnna IlyinaJosé L. Martínez HernándezRosa Maria Rodríguez-JassoJosé L. Hoyos-ConchaCristóbal Noé Aguilar-González, in Enzymes in Food Biotechnology, 2019. Your Name. Both the leaves and the seeds are nutritionally dense and are good sources of dietary fibre, calcium, and iron; the seeds are also high in protein. Amaranth Farming Information Guide. While EFSA concluded that Amaranth does not raise concern in respect to genotoxicity, the ADI was derived from a 2-year study in rats indicating an LOAEL of 50 mg/kg bw/day for renal pelvic calcifications and hyperplasias in female rats (Clode et al., 1987) and on reproduction and developmental studies leading to an NOAEL of 15 mg/kg bw/day for rats (Collins and McLaughlin, 1972). In Europe, yields are moderate, 1200–6700 kg/ha, especially in Mediterranean climates. However, the major producers are China and Russia with 300000 and 100 000 ha cultivated, respectively (Cai et al., 2004a). The maximum permitted level across all food categories is 100 mg/l for some spirituous beverages (bitter soda, bitter vino, Americano). Consequently, the absorption of intact Amaranth is rather limited (EFSA, 2010e). Besides being gluten-free, the challenge of gluten-free food is to offer an adequate nutritional balance. Leaves are approximately 6.5–15 centimetres (2 ⁄2–6 inches) and of oval or elliptical shape that are either opposite or alternate across sp… R.J. Fletcher, in Encyclopedia of Grain Science, 2004. In fact, the growing gluten-free market can be seen as one of the main driving forces for the increased production and use of amaranth. It is quite similar to pigweed in many respects. Amaranth is one of the most delicious leafy vegetables. Updates? Its grain is an excellent source of high-quality protein and lipids with higher content of minerals, such as calcium, potassium, phosphorus, as well as dietary fibre, than cereal grains. H. Corke, ... H.X. Melissa Petruzzello is Assistant Editor of Plant and Environmental Science and covers a range of content from plants, algae, and fungi, to renewable energy and environmental engineering. Amaranthus viridis L. (1763) Preferred Common Name. Amaranth is a rediscovered ‘new’ crop. Amaranth appears to be relatively unstable in solution and in processed foods. Angiosperm, any of about 300,000 species of flowering plants, the largest and most diverse...…. A general overview about macronutrients is given in Table 6.1. Flowers are generally radiating around the stem. Gluten-free products like bread and pasta with amaranth have been studied by some researchers (Calderon de la Barca, 2010; Schoenlechner, Drausinger, Ottenschlaeger, Jurackova, & Berghofer, 2010), but still remain under-researched compared to major crops. Figure 6.1. It may also be known as Calaloo or Mchicha. This has been investigated for different products (eg, bread, pasta, cookies, biscuits, beverages) by several researchers. Table 2 shows the proximate chemical compositions of the grains of several Amaranthus species, indicating that there is some variation within an overall pattern among and within species. Celosia argentea var. Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth, khada sag), Amaranthus frumentaceous (poong keeray, tola kura), Amaranthus tricolor (tampala), Amaranthus graecizans (spreading pigweed), Amaranthus blitum (livid amaranth), Amaranthus quitensis (yuyo colorado, sangorache), Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot, pigweed), Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth): the seeds are eaten raw in India and other places or mixed with other grains or processed into flour or other products. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Total dietary fiber content (soluble and insoluble) in amaranth grains from A. caudatus, A. cruentus, and A. hypochondriacus ranges between 7.1% and 16.4%. Table 6.1. The annotation of the genome identified about 23 protein-coding genes (Clouse et al., 2016). Highest yields of 4600–7200 kg/ha are in South and Middle America, whereas in Africa crop yields are quite low, 50–2500 kg/ha. Preferred Scientific Name. Here we will only discuss grain amaranth. Amaranth grains are relatively high in tocopherol (546 ppm), riboflavin, etc. Tag: Amaranth Scientific Name. As amaranth, as well as other pseudocereals, is nutritionally superior to many gluten-free raw materials, its use is a logical consequence. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. cristata (cockscomb): the seeds of these species have been used as famine foods. SEM view of partially dehulled amaranth kernels (Stefano D’Amico and Ruben Pahl). Order Seeds Latest Pricelists. At least one species, Palmer’s amaranth (A. palmeri), has developed resistance to the common herbicide glyphosate and is a troublesome pest in genetically modified cotton and soybean crops in the United States. Given that amaranths typically produce high yields of leaves and seeds, are easy to grow and harvest, and are simple to cook, the plants hold promise as potential alternative crops. Your Email I accept the privacy policy. Wu, in Encyclopedia of Food Grains (Second Edition), 2016. Leaves have a long leaf stalk and have a broad base tapering to a pointed tip. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012765490900001X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857094131500139, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0127654909001336, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128132807000141, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845691776500138, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781782420118000027, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128027783000160, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123944375000322, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081008669000066, Gluten-Free Cereal Products and Beverages, 2008, Percentage on dry weight basis; data from Saunders RM and Becker R (1984), Percentage on dry weight basis; data from Singhal RS and Kulkarni PR (1988) Composition of the seeds of some, Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries, Fungal Proteases and Production of Bioactive Peptides for the Food Industry, Gloria A. Martínez-MedinaArely Prado BarragánHéctor A. RuizAnna IlyinaJosé L. Martínez HernándezRosa Maria Rodríguez-JassoJosé L. Hoyos-ConchaCristóbal Noé Aguilar-González, in, Products containing other speciality grains: sorghum, the millets and pseudocereals, Food colour additives of synthetic origin, Amaranth Part 2—Sustainability, Processing, and Applications of Amaranth, Calderon de la Barca, 2010; Schoenlechner, Drausinger, Ottenschlaeger, Jurackova, & Berghofer, 2010, Bejosano & Corke, 1998; Fidantsi & Doxastakis, 2001, Wilhelm, Aberle, Burchard, & Landers, 2002; Zhao & Whistler, 1994, Encyclopedia of Food Grains (Second Edition), Amaranth: Its Unique Nutritional and Health-Promoting Attributes, Stefano D’Amico, Regine Schoenlechner, in, (Adapted from Irving, D.W., Betschart, A.A., Saunders, R.M., 1981. slim amaranth smooth pigweed This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. The radicle, the hypocotyl, the shoot radicle and the two cotyledons are clearly visible under the microscope in the longitudinal section as shown in Fig. 6.1. Saag, the Indian moniker for green leafy vegetables, forms an integral part of various regional cuisines in the country.Loaded with vitamins and essential minerals, it is the best way of fueling up on the season’s best offerings. Cai, ... H.X. Amaranth grain is characterized by a relatively higher content of protein, higher lipid content, and lower starch content than those of the major cereals. Nowadays, it is still cultivated as a minor crop in Central and South America and some areas of Asia (especially in China) and Africa. English: African spinach; callaloo; green amaranth; rough pigweed; wild amaranth Amaranth possesses high stress tolerance to drought, salinity, alkalinity or acid soil conditions. Amaranth seed structure is completely different to true cereals. Amaranth is a red azo-dye with the chemical name trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo)naphthalene-3,6-disulfonate manufactured by coupling 4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid with 3-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (Figure 2.1d). The relatively very large size of the embryo is shown in Fig. 6.2 (partially dehulled amaranth seed). The leaves can be eaten fresh or cooked like spinach and are often added to salads or soups. Aztecs and peoples of other cultures consumed both the leafy greens and the seeds, and they used the plants as medicinal herbs and as a source of ceremonial face and body paint. AMPA10: Amaranthus paniculatus L. Popped amaranth grains are quite soft in texture and are ready to be eaten as is or to be incorporated (after milling) into existing or new food formulations.